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Adaptation

Created Jan 12, 2021 (14:49) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

The response of economic agents and societies to major environment changes (e.g., gloabal warming) and/or political and economic shocks (e.g., famine or war). (Zilberman et al. 2012) [Zilberman, D., Zhao, J., & Heiman, A. (2012). Adoption versus adaptation, with emphasis on climate change. Annu. Rev. Resour. Econ., 4(1), 27-53.]

ADCIRC

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

The ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model is a high-performance, cross-platform numerical ocean circulation model popular in simulating storm surge, flooding, tides, coastal circulation problems, dredging feasibility, and material deposit studies. The model formulation is based on the shallow water equation, solving continuity and momentum equations. It utilizes the finite element method based on triangular unstructured grids and the finite diffence method to model variation with respect to time. ADCIRC is frequently coupled to wind wave models such as STWAVE, SWAN, or WAVEWATCH III.

Adoption/Adaptation Strategies

Created Jan 12, 2021 (14:50) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Synonym(s):
  • Adoption/Adaptation Timing

Economics Methods used in either the adoption or adaptation to an economic or societal change. Adoption: "Change in practice or technology used by economic agents or a community, has a long intellectual history." Adaptation: "The response of economic agents and socieities to major environment changes and/or politcal and economic shocks." (Zilerman et al. 2012; 28) [Zilerman, D., Zhao, J. & Heiman, A. (2012) Adoption Versus Adaptation, With Emphasis on Climate Change. Annual Review of Resource Economics 4 27-53] Environmental-Policy An approach or plan to cope with an environmental or societal change, i.e. global climate change. (Biesbroek 2010) [Biesbroek, G.R., Swart, R.J., Carter, T.R., Cowan, C., Henrichs, T., Mela, H., Morecroft, M.D. & Rey, D. (2010) Europe adapts to climate change: comparing national adaptation strategies. Global Environmental Change 20 440-450] DOI Links DOI Link 1 DOI Link 2

Adoption/Adaptation Timing

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Synonym(s):
  • Adoption/Adaptation Timing

Environmental-Science The point in a project or cycle that a technology or strategy is adopted in order to adapt to a challenge. (McDonald and Brown 1999) [McDonald, M. & Brown, K. (1999) Soil and water conservation projects and rural livelihoods: options for design and research to enhance adoption and adaptation. Land Degradation & Development. 11 343-361] Public-Health Whether an adaptation is proactive (anticipate potential problems) or reactive (occur during a program due to unanticipated obstacles). (Moore et al. 2013) [Moore, J.E., Bumbager, B.K. & Cooper, B.R. (2013) Examining Adaptations of Evidence-Based Programs in Natural Contexts. The Journal of Primary Prevention. 34(3). 141-161] DOI Links DOI Link 1 DOI Link 2

After-Action Reports

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

A detailed critical summary or analysis of a past event, created to re-assess decisions and consider possible alternatives for future scenarios.

Aftershock Occurrence Rate

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Synonym(s):
  • Mainshock Magnitude; Earthquake; Mainshock-Aftershock Parameterized Fragility Models; Mainshock; Mainshock-Aftershock Fragility; Aftershocks; Mainshock-Aftershock Synthesized Earthquake Sequences Utilizing Source-Based Stochastic Ground Models

Geophysics The sequence of shocks after a main earthquake over time. (Nyffengger and Frohlich 2000) [Nyffengger, P. & Frohlich, C. (2000) Aftershock occurence rate decay properties for intermediate and deep earthquake sequences. Geophysical Research Letters. 27(8). 1215-1218] Statistics The distribution of the frequency of further shocks after an initial earthquake's occurence, the energy releases, and number of shocks over time. (Vere-Jones 1966) [Vere-Jones, D. (1966) A markov model for aftershock occurence. Pure and Applied Geophysics 64(1). 37-42] DOI Links DOI Link 1 DOI Link 2

Aging Infrastructure

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Progressive changes in infrastructure various components health that lead to a decline of infrastructure functions.

Aleatory

Created Jan 12, 2021 (14:50) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Synonym(s):
  • Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainties; Aleatory vs Epistemic (Model-Based)

The word aleatory derives from the Latin alea, which means the rolling of dice. (Der Kiureghian and Ditlevsen 2009)

Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainties+

Created Jan 11, 2022 (02:53) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Synonym(s):
  • Propagation of Uncertainties; Aleatory vs. Epistemic (Model-Based) Uncertainties; Endoxastic Uncertainty; Epistemic Uncertainties; Uncertainty Modeling
While many sources of uncertainty may exist, they are generally categorized as either aleatoryor epistemic. Uncertainties are characterized as epistemic, if the modeler sees a possibility to reducethem by gathering more data or by refining models. Uncertainties are categorized as aleatory if the mod-eler does not foresee the possibility of reducing them. (Der Kiureghian and Ditlevsen 2009)

Aleatory Uncertainty

Created Jan 11, 2022 (02:53) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

An aleatoric uncertainty is one that is presumed to be the intrinsic randomness of a phenomenon. (Der Kiureghian and Ditlevsen 2009)

Aleatory vs Epistemic (Model-Based) Uncertainties

Created Jan 11, 2022 (02:53) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Synonym(s):
  • Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainties; Propagation of Uncertainties; Endoxastic Uncertainty; Epistemic Uncertainties; Uncertainty Modeling

The fundamental difference between the two types of uncertainties is that, whereas aleatory uncertainties are irreducible, epistemic uncertainties are reducible, e.g., by use of improved models, more accurate measurements and collection of additional samples (Gardoni et al. 2002)

Algorithm

Created Jan 11, 2022 (02:53) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

An optimization algorithm is a procedure which is executed iteratively by comparing various solutions till an optimum or a satisfactory solution is found. [http://dl.icdst.org/pdfs/files3/a244cec607b560ff770e8d149efd0b88.pdf]

Applied Econometric Analyses

Created Jan 11, 2022 (02:53) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Applied econometric analyses use real-world data and theoretical econometric models and techniques to assess economic theories, make forecasts, evaluate policies, and help decision making.

Asymmetrically Reinforced Concrete Frame Buildings

Created Jan 11, 2022 (02:53) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

In asymmetric frame buildings, there is an eccentricity between the center of mass and stiffness due to the formation of lateral load carrying elements, causing the development of a torsional force when the frame is subject to a external lateral load. Chopra (2012)