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Calibrated Deterioration Models

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

A deterioration model is used to account for the effect of age, environmental conditions, and past hazardous events on the state of structures and infrastructure. A calibrated model is a mathematical formulation where the model parameters have been calibrated based on field/experimental data.

Candidate Tsunami Intensity Measures

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Tsunami intensity measures characterize the tsunami hazard (see tsunami intensity measure definition). Candidate intensity measures include inundation depth, flow velocity, momentum flux, moment of momentum flux, duration of flooding, and time to reach a certain inudation depth (tsunami arrival time).

Capital Stock

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Business "In the USA, the equity shares in a corporation. The two basic types of capital stock are common stock and preferred stock. Common Stock is the US name for ordinary shares or a fixed unit of the share capital of a company; Preferred stock is the US name for a preference share or a share in a company yielding a fixed rate of interest rather than a variable dividend.” (Law 2016; web) [Law, J. L. (2016). Capital stock. In J. Law (Ed.), A Dictionary of Business and Management. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199684984.001.0001/acref-9780199684984-e-974 ] Banking "Conforms to the definition of unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus contained in Regulation O and in the Comptroller's formula for calculating single-borrower loan limits." (Cocheo 1996; web) [Cocheo, S. (1996) "The Federal Reserve is adopting a definition of capital stock and surplus for purposes of Section 23A." ABA Banking Journal: 84. Business Insights: Global. Retrieved from: http://bi.galegroup.com.colorado.idm.oclc.org/global/article/GALE%7CA18509547?u=coloboulder ]

Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) Hazard

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

The Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) is a "megathrust" fault that is approximately 700 miles (1,030 km) long, dipping fault that stretches from Brooks Peninsula on Vancover Island in British Columbia to Cape Mendocino in California. All along this zone, which begins beneath the seafloor to the west and extends inland towards the Cascade and Coastal mountains, the subducting plates are forced beneath the North American Plate. Recent scientific evidence revealed that a partial rupture of CSZ has the potential of generating a series of large earthquakes (each measuring M8 to M8.5) over a period of years, while a full-rupture CSZ event is an end-to-end earthquake rupture that could result in M8.7~M9.3 earthquakes.

Cascading Hazards

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Cascading hazards are those in which a primary hazard is followed by a sequence of secondary hazard or hazards as a direct or indirect result of the primary hazard. For example, earthquake ruptured natural gas pipelines could result in fires and explosions that dramatically escalate the type and magnitude of the initial impact to the infrastructure.

Cascading Social Impacts

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

[Cascading] social impacts are “social disturbances that a hazard agent inflicts when it strikes a community”. These “[s]ocial impacts comprise psychological impacts, demographic impacts, economic impacts, and political impacts.” (Lindell, 2013). Psychological impacts can include psychological distress, domestic violence and “long-term adaptive consequences, such as changes in risk perception (beliefs in the likelihood of the occurrence a disaster and its personal consequences for the individual) and increased hazard intrusiveness (frequency of thought and discussion about a hazard)” (Lindell, 2013). Demographic impacts are result of changes in the demographic balancing equation, that is, births, deaths, immigrations, and out migrations. Economic impacts include property damage, damage to community economic functioning, loss income and wages, and any additional costs incurred by a community as a result of the disaster. Political impacts can include: “social activism resulting in political disruption”, conflicts between stakeholders, and constituent dissatisfaction with government. [Lindell, M. K. (2013). Recovery and reconstruction after disaster. Encyclopedia of natural hazards, 812-824.] Engineering Interconnected and "unexpected disruptions (e.g., due to factors such as natural disasters or hostile human activities)," that cause "the performance of the city and the well‐being of the society can be significantly impacted, resulting in social consequences such as economic loss, humanitarian crisis, and even demographic loss." (Lu et al. 2018; 301) [Lu, L., Wang, X., Ouyang, Y., Roningen, J., Myers, N., & Calfas, G. (2018). Vulnerability of interdependent urban infrastructure networks: Equilibrium after failure propagation and cascading impacts. Computer‐Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 33(4), 300-315.]

Census/Administrative Data

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Real-Estate "Information about the members of a given population collected from a government census. A census is a regularly-occurring and official count of a particular population. Census data provides more than just a population count. Other variables include ethnicity breakdowns, income, and housing values." (Wharton University of Pennsylvania 2011; web) [Wharton University of Pennsylvania. (2011) Glossary: Census Data. Retrieved from: http://kwhs.wharton.upenn.edu/term/census-data/ ]

Centerville Testbed

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

“The Centerville Virtual Community Testbed is designed specifically to stress the algorithms that..will be incorporated in IN-CORE, to allow issues of scalability in community infrastructure modeling to be addressed, and to inform the development of more refined community resilience assessment methods… in the [CoE] research program.” For a further description of the Centerville Testbed see Ellingwood et al. (2016). [Ellingwood et al. (2016) The centerville virtual community: a fully integrated decision model of integrating physical and social infrastucture systems.] A virtual community developed by NIST-funded Center of Excellence for Community Resilience with the purpose of testing procedures and methodologies and is representative of a typical mid-size city, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants. (Guidotti et al. 2016) [Guidotti, R., Chmielewski, H., Unnikrishnan, V., Gardoni, P., McAllister, T., & van de Lindt, J. (2016). Modeling the resilience of critical infrastructure: The role of network dependencies. Sustainable and resilient infrastructure, 1(3-4), 153-168.]

CGE Modeling Assumptions

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Economics Parameters assumed to ease analysis for computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling. CGE moedeling is used as an analysis tool for environmental policy and natural resource management. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling is an attempt to use general equilibrium theory as a tool for analysis of resource allocation and income distribution issues in market economies. CGE models almost always are focused on the real side of the economy and thus do not include markets for financial assets. Consequently, a typical CGE model endogenously determines relative product and factor prices and the real exchange rate but cannot determine nominal prices and the nominal exchange rate. Most existing CGE models are static, but as faster computers and more efficient software have become available, an increasing number of environmental CGE models are dynamic. In addition to the static–dynamic dimension, it is useful to distinguish between single-country, multi-country and global models. It is a multi-sector model based on real world data of one or several national economies. CGE models rest upon strong assumptions about (A) optimizing behavior, (B) competitive markets, and (C) flexible relative prices. (A) Competitive markets: Moreover, product and factor markets are assumed to be competitive, and relative prices flexible enough to simultaneously clear all product and factor markets. (B) Optimizing behavior: In general, the technology is assumed to exhibit constant returns to scale, and preferences are assumed to be homothetic. Utility and profit maximization behavior is generally assumed, and excess demand functions are homogeneous of degree zero in prices and satisfy Walras' law. (C) Flexible relative prices: In particular CGE models are aimed at quantifying the impact of specific policies on the equilibrium allocation of resources and relative prices of goods and factors. (Bergman 2005; 1274-1301) [Bergman, L. (2005) CGE modeling of environmental policy and resource management. Economywide and International Environmental Issues 3(I1-I26) 1273-1306 doi: 10.1016/S1574-0099(05)03024-X] DOI Links DOI Link 1

Channel Flow Flooding

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Environmental-Science Water overflow from a channel (Nelson 2016) [Nelson, S.A. (2016) River Systems & Causes of Flooding. Retrieved from http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/Natural_Disasters/riversystems.htm] Physics Overflow of water that "submerges land areas that are usually dry" in a drainage system formed by streams, rivers, and lakes. (Adegoke & Fakunle, 2017; 30) [Adegoke, J.A. & Fakunle, M.A. (2017) Channel Flow and Flood Estimate. Annals of West University of Timisoara - Physics 59(1) 30-48 doi:10.1515/awutp-2016-0005] DOI Link 2

Children+

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Elizabeth Bittel)

General: Internationally recognized as an individual under the age of 18. Children are more psychologically vulnerable; physically vulnerable to death, injury, illness, and abuse, and often experience disruptions or delays in their educational progress as a result of disasters. (Peek, 2008) [Peek, L. (2008). Children and disasters: Understanding vulnerability, developing capacities, and promoting resilience—An introduction. Children Youth and Environments, 18(1), 1-29.]

Civil Infrastructure

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

Civil-Engineering Physical structures that "provide the means for society to function and includes buildings, pedestrial and vehicular bridges, tunnels, factories, conventional and nuclear power plants, offshore petroleum installations, heritage structures, port facilities and geotechnical structures, such as foundations and excavations." (Brownjohn 2007; 589) [Brownjohn, J.M.W. (2007) Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.] Civil-Engineering Structures or systems, such as bridges, highways, electric power networks, that assist a functioning community. (Ellingwood et al. 2016) [Ellingwood, B. R., Cutler, H., Gardoni, P., Peacock, W. G., van de Lindt, J. W., & Wang, N. (2016). The centerville virtual community: A fully integrated decision model of interacting physical and social infrastructure systems. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, 1(3-4), 95-107.] DOI Links DOI Link 1

Classical Methods

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

The classical methods of optimization are useful in finding the optimum solution of continuous and differentiable functions. These methods are analytical and make use of the techniques of differential calculus in locating the optimum points. [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781119454816.ch2]

Classical Optimization Techniques

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

The classical methods of optimization are useful in finding the optimum solution of continuous and differentiable functions. These methods are analytical and make use of the techniques of differential calculus in locating the optimum points. [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781119454816.ch2]

Climate Change

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

"A change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. It refers to any change in climate over time, such as temperature and rainfall, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity." (United Nations 2011; 1) [United Nations (2011) Fact sheet: Climate change science - the status of climate change science today. Retrieved from https://unfccc.int/files/press/backgrounders/application/pdf/press_factsh_science.pdf]

Climate Change Models

Created Jan 12, 2021 (14:50)

Synonym(s):
  • Climate Change

Atmospheric-Science: "Computer programs based on well-documented physical processes to simulate the transfer of energy and materials through the climate system in the past and how it will change in the future " (NOAA 2020; web) [Retrieved from https://www.climate.gov/maps-data/primer/climate-models]. Environmental-Science: "A mathematical system that represents the effects of climate changes resulting from rising CO2. These are used to assess the effects of climate change on different systems, such as the carbon water cycle with vegetation" (Cramer et al. 2001) [Cramer, W., Bondeau, A., Woodward, F. I., Prentice, I. C., Betts, R. A., Brovkin, V., ... & Kucharik, C. (2001)].

Close-Ended Surveys

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

Definition: A survey gathers information by posing a standard set of questions and stimuli to a sample of individuals drawn from an appropriate target population. (Johnson et al., 2019) [Johnson, J. B., Reynolds, H. T., & Mycoff, J. D. (2019). Political Science Research Methods. CQ Press: Canada] Close-ended surveys: Questionnaires that "limit the respondent to the set of alternatives being offered." (Reja et a;., 2003) [Reja, U., Manfreda, K. L., Hlebec, V., & Vehovar, V. (2003). Open-ended vs. close-ended questions in web questionnaires. Developments in applied statistics, 19(1), 160-117.] Close-ended surveys provide respondents with a fixed number from which to choose an answer. They are more easily analyzed than open-ended questions, can more specifically ask the question and communicate similar meanings between respondents, take less time and money for the researcher, and tend to have higher response rates. (Lavrakas, 2008) [Lavrakas, P. J. (2008). Encyclopedia of survey research methods. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks]

Coarse Granularity

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

The word 'granular' describes something that is made up of multiple elements. If the elements are small, we call it 'fine-grained,' and if the elements are large, we call it 'coarse-grained. Granularity captures the level of detail of mathematical or digital representations of reality. The term granularity is qualitative. For quantitative measurements of the detail level, we use the spatial, temporal, and hierarchical resolutions.

Coincidence Analysis

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

A configurational comparative method of causal inference and data analysis that models the Boolean dimensions of causal structures. (Univeristy of Bergen 2013; web) [Univeristy of Bergen. (2013). Coincidence Analysis. Retreived from https://www.uib.no/en/cna]. The basic idea of coincidence analysis is that multiple coincident occurences of events with low conditional probabiities can indicate causality.

Collaboration Framework

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Sustainability "A framework designed to help individuals and practitioners who are either starting collaborations, or need help in strengthening an existing collaboration. Specifically, it assists people, groups and organizations to achieve clearly defined outcomes. Drawing from a diversity of people and opinions, the framework is based on a core foundation of shared vision, mission, principles and values." (National Network for Collaboration; web) [National Network for Collaboration. Collaboration framework… Addressing Community Capacity. Retrieved from: http://www.uvm.edu/crs/nnco/cd/subfor.htm ]

Community

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

The combination of a population and geography situated within designated geographical boundaries, such as a town, city, or county, which operates under a governance structure. The identity of communities is informed by their location, history, leadership, population, and available resources. The assets and resources of a community can be referred to as the community’s capitals. [NIST. (2016). “Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems, Volume I.” NIST Special Publication 1190, doi:10.6028/NIST.SP.1190v1]

Community Fire Propagation Algorithm

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Fire propagation is a class of algorithms use to simulate the spread of fire that fall under dynamic-systems. The complexities of fire propagation is that this involves destruction of the environment and requires a game engine that supports a degree of modifiable level geometry. Modelling fire can be done simply by determining which elements of the community environment are combustible and then having fire spread to adjacent combustible elements with time, or by more completely modelling the elements of fuel, oxygen and heat which are required to spread a fire." (Procedural Content Generation Wiki 2012; web) [Procedural Content Generation Wiki (2012). Fire Propagation. Retreived from http://pcg.wikidot.com/pcg-algorithm:fire-propagation]

Community Resilience Modeling

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Community Resilience "A conceptual and corresponding computational modeling of the effect of natural hazards on a community, which helps "policymakers decide how to allocate resources to make a community more resilient after a natural hazard. The model is based on a theory of community functioning. It examines what characteristics of a community (social, physical, economic, political, etc.) might predict a community’s experience with a natural hazard, how much loss of function the community experiences, and how long it might take for the community to recover." [1] Here, community resilience is defined as "the ability to prepare for anticipated hazards, adapt to changing conditions, and withstand and recover rapidly from disruptions. Activities, such as disaster preparedness—which includes prevention, protection, mitigation, response and recovery—are key steps to resilience." [2] References: [1] (HHS 2019; web) [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (2019). Public Health Emergency (PHD) Home: Modeling Community Resilience, Community factors that promoted resilience in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Retrieved from: https://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/planning/SandyResearch/Pages/community-resilience.aspx] [2] (Materese 2016; web) [Materese, R. (2016).

Community Stakeholders

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

General Community Stakeholders are those who have an interest, concern, or sway in the community. Stakeholders within a community range from the individual and household level to the governmental level. A resilient community engages all stakeholders in its plan for hazard and disaster mitigation and adaptation. (NIST 2015) [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). (2015). “TOWARD A MORE RESILIENT COMMUNITY An Overview of the Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems.” Retrieved from: www.nist.gov/sites/default/files/documents/2016/09/07/151026_nist_communityresilience_brochure_individual-pgs-guide.pdf.] General "People, groups, organizations or businesses that have interest or concern in the community. Stakeholders can affect or be affected by the community’s actions, objectives and policies. Some examples of key community stakeholders are residents, community groups, developers , government workers (and the agencies they represent), business owners, neighborhood leaders, commission members and other groups from which the community draws its resources." (Glendinning 2016; web) [Glendinning, R. (2016). Community Stakeholders. Neighborhood Economics (blog). Retrieved from: http://neighborhoodeconomics.org/community-stakeholders/]

Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Analyses

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Policy-Research "Model that explains all of the payments recorded in the social accounting matrix (SAM). The model therefore follows the SAM disaggregation of factors, activities, commodities, and institutions. It is written as a set of simultaneous equations, many of which are nonlinear. There is no objective function. The equations define the behavior of the different actors." (Lofgren et al. 2002; 8) [Lofgren, H., Harris, R. L., & Robinson, S. (2002). A standard computable general equilibrium (CGE) model in GAMS 8. International Food Policy Research Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/mdg_workshops/training_material/lofgren_lee_and_robinson_2002.pdf ]

Computational Environment

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

The term environment refers to a computer's state, determined by a combination of software, necessary hardware, and which programs are running. A computational environment has several aspects, the operating system, libraries, environment variables, software, local files, and user permissions. Computational environments aim to enable ease of development or execution of specific analytics while maintaining system security.

Computationally Intensive Methods

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Compute-intensive is a term that applies to any computer application that demands a lot of computation. A similar but distinct term, computer-intensive methods, refers to applications that require a lot of computers, such as grid computing. [https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/compute-intensive#:~:text=Compute%2Dintensive%20is%20a%20term,computers%2C%20such%20as%20grid%20computing%20.]

Concurrent Uncorrelated Hazards

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Civil-Engineering "subject to multiple hazards that do not affect the formation of eachother: natural disaster events that are concurrent and either correlated (e.g., wind and surge); uncorrelated (e.g., earthquake and flood); cascading (e.g., fire following earthquake); or uncorrelated and occurring at different times (e.g., wind and earthquake)." (Gardoni and LaFave 2016; web) [Gardoni, P., & LaFave, J. M. (Eds.). (2016). Multi-hazard Approaches to Civil Infrastructure Engineering. Springer International Publishing. Retrieved from: //www.springer.com/us/book/9783319297118] DOI Links DOI Link 1

Conditional Failure Probabilities

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Electrical-and-Computer-Engineering Likelihood of failure within a time frame where the events are dependent. (Iyer 2013) [Iyer, R.K. (2013) Hazard and Reliability Functions, Failure Rates. Retrieved from https://courses.engr.illinois.edu/ece313/fa2013/SectionB/Lectures/lec_20.pdf] Business Likelihood that an "item will fail during a period if it does not fail before." (Business Dictionary; web) [Conditional Probability of Failure (n.d.) In Business Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/conditional-probability-of-failure.html]

Constituent Components of Highway And Railway Networks

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Civil-Engineering Components of highway and railway infrastructure systems that are characterised by their "specific technical and functional properties and financial value." (Klatter et al. 2002; 1) [Klatter, H. E., Van Noortwijk, J. M., & Van Eck, N. V. (2002). Bridge management in the Netherlands; Prioritisation based on network performance. In First international conference on bridge maintenance, safety and management (IABMAS), Barcelona, Spain (pp. 14-17).]

Consumer Expenditure

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Statistics What an average person spends money on. One application is the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Consumer Expenditure Survey, which assess "how Americans spend their money". (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2016; web) [Bureau of Labor Statistics . (2016). Consumer Expenditures and Income: Overview. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/cex/home.htm]

Correlated Hazards Case

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Two or more hazards that are correlated in intensity. Examples can include earthquakes and tsunamis, where the intensity of the initial seismic event is correlated to the intensity of tsunami inundation characteristics

Correlation Structures

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Data-Science The arrangement of data that have a common theme or methodology. For example, serial correlation is when the same subject is measured repeatedly over time. (Chan 2014) [Chan, J.S.K. (2014). Analysis of correlation structures using generalized estimating equation approach for longitudinal binary data. Journal of Data Science 12 293-305] Statistics A class of functions within the programming software R that relate data combinations or classes of data. (Pinheiro and Bates) [Pinheiro, J. & Bates, D. (n.d.) Correlation Structure Classes. Retrieved from https://stat.ethz.ch/R-manual/R-devel/library/nlme/html/corClasses.html]

Coupled 2D Models

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Synonym(s):
  • 2D Modeling

Geophysics A mathematical model that combines two dimensional models for simulation. Often used for flow modeling, such as aerosols or water flow. (Rosenfiled et al. 1997) [Rosenfiled, J.E., Considine, D.B., Meade, P.E., Bacmeister, J.T., Jackman, C.H. & Schoeberl, M.R. (1997) Stratospheric effects of Mount Pinatubo aerosol studied with a coupled two-dimensional model. Journal of Geophysical Research 102(D3) 3649-3670] Hydrology A method to determine morphological changes of geological flows, such as a dam-break flow, that uses two dimensional models in combination to assess multiple factors. (Xia et al. 2010) [Xia, J., Lin, B., Falconer, R.A. & Wang, G. (2010) Modelling dam-break flows over mobile beds using a 2D coupled approach. Advances in Water Resources. 33 171-183] DOI Link 2

Coupled Effects

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

General [Coupling] “Coupling is the act of joining two things together. In software development, coupling refers to the degree to which software components are dependent upon each other. For instance, in a tightly-coupled architecture, each component and its associated components must be present in order for code to be executed or compiled. In a loosely-coupled architecture, components can remain autonomous and allow middleware software to manage communication between them. In a decoupled architecture, the components can operate completely separately and independently.” (TechTarget 2011) [TechTarget. (2011). Computing fundamentals: Coupling. Retrieved from: https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/coupling ] Chemistry When "the magnetic field of vicinal (adjacent) protons influence the field that the proton experiences". (Hunt; web) [Hunt, I (n.d.) Coupling in H-NMR. Retrieved from http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/courses/351/Carey5th/Ch13/ch13-nmr-5.html]

Coupled Hazards

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Civil-Engineering: "Multiple dangers or risks that occur during an event such a typhoon or natural disaster. Often used as a model parameter for climate change modeling. " (Murakami et al. 2012) [Murakami, T., Iida, J., Yoshino, J. & Yasuda, T. (2012)]. Coupled hazards are multiple (natural) hazards such as earthquakes, hurricanes, sea level rise, fires, etc. Many experiments seek to integrate the risk of independently-acting hazards to account for the "multi-hazard risk," but some still recognize the probability of hazards in space and time acting together; this is the case for the study of combined multi-hazards. [Kappes, Keiler, von Elverfeldt, Glade. Challenges of analyzing multi-hazard risk: a review. Nat Hazards 2012;64:1925–1958. doi:10.1007/s11069-012-0294-2].

Coupled sector validation

Created Jul 27, 2017 (00:00) by Jong Lee

Coupled sector validation

Critical Infrastructure

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

"Critical infrastructure describes the physical and cyber systems and assets that are so vital to the United States that their incapacity or destruction would have a debilitating impact on our physical or economic security or public health or safety. The nation's critical infrastructure provides the essential services that underpin American society" (DHS 2019; web) [U.S Department of Homeland Security (DHS). 2019. Critical Infrastructure Sectors. Retrieved from: https://www.dhs.gov/cisa/critical-infrastructure-sectors ]

Critical Infrastructure Sectors

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Industiral, commercial or government sectors that make up the critial infrastructure. The following sectors are listed as part of the critical infrastructre sectors: chemical; commercial facilities; communications; critical manufacturing; dams; defense industrial base; emergency services; energy financial services; food and agriculture; government facilities; healthcare and public health; information technology; nuclear reactors, material and waste; transportation systems; and water and waste water systems. (Presidential Policy Directive 2013) [Presidential Policy Directive -- Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience. (2013, February 12). Retrieved February 13, 2019, from https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2013/02/12/presidential-policy-directive-critical-infrastructure-security-and-resil]

Critical Public/Private Financing (SBA, FEMA, CDBG, Etc.) Streams

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

There are several financing streams. Here are the largest ones. FEMA Public Assistance: Public Assistance is a reimbursement program that provides federal funding to help communities respond to and recover from disasters such as Hurricane Florence and Tropical Storm Michael. FEMA reimburses state and local governments and certain types of private nonprofit organizations for the cost of disaster-related debris removal, emergency protective measures to protect life and property, and permanent repair work to damaged or destroyed infrastructure. (https://www.fema.gov/news-release/20200220/what-fema-public-assistance) FEMA Individual Assistance: The individual assistance program offers assistance in various forms for disaster recovery. The assistance programs include home, business, and other needs, etc. More details can be found at: https://www.fema.gov/individual-disaster-assistance. FEMA Individuals and Households Program, Housing Assistance (IHP): Housing Assistance under FEMA's Individuals and Households Program (IHP) provideS financial help and direct services after a disaster. The program assists with housing needs not covered by insurance or provided by any other source. Housing Assistance includes the following: lodging expense reimbursement for short-term stays in hotels or motels, rental assistance for temporary housing OR direct temporary housing, money to help repair or replace primary homes, and permanent housing construction. (https://www.disasterassistance.gov/get-assistance/forms-of-assistance/4471). FEMA Other Needs Assistance (ONA): Other Needs Assistance provides financial help after a disaster. The program provides money, if one qualifies, for necessary expenses and serious needs caused by the disaster. Other needs assistance includes the following: Personal property, Childcare, Medical and dental expenses, Funeral and burial costs, Transportation, Moving and storage, Miscellaneous and other expenses, Critical needs assistance, Group flood insurance program. (https://www.disasterassistance.gov/get-assistance/forms-of-assistance/4473). FEMA Critical Needs Assistance (CNA): CNA falls under the category of other needs assistance. It may provide individual financial assistance to applicants who have immediate or critical needs because they are displaced from their primary dwelling. Funds awarded for individual assistance count toward an applicant’s financial other needs assistance maximum for that disaster, which is an annually-adjusted amount based on the U.S. Department of Labor’s Consumer Price Index. CNA is a one-time $500 payment per household. Define all the assistance FEMA provides. (https://www.fema.gov/fact-sheet/critical-needs-assistance). National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP): “The NFIP was created in 1968 as part of the shift from structural to non-structural mitigation. The NFIP is administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to provide flood insurance to businesses and households through over 80 private insurance companies. Only businesses and households located in communities that have joined the NFIP are eligible for the more affordable flood insurance policies through private insurance agents and companies. Communities that apply to join the NFIP must complete a range of tasks related to floodplain management including requiring that new structures are elevated above the base flood level, requiring permits for development in areas prone to flooding, requiring that the design of buildings mitigate flood damage, and updating building codes to decrease flood risk and damage. As of August 2016, close to 25,000 communities were members of the NFIP representing only a fraction of the 88% of US counties that had at least one flood between 1950 and 2000. The 5.5 million properties in the program are eligible for flood insurance up to $350,000 if residential and $1 million if nonresidential. Between 1978 and 2004, over $14 billion was paid (representing close to 1 million claims) through NFIP to property owners. It is estimated that floodplain regulations, over the same period of time, saved $1 billion per year in the reconstruction of buildings.” (Fayola Helen, 2018) [Jacobs, F. H. (2018). Insuring Inequity: An Intersectional Analysis of the Community Rating System (Doctoral dissertation)]. The U. S. Small Business Administration (SBA) Loans: SBA provides low-interest, long-term disaster loans to businesses of all sizes, private non-profit organizations, homeowners, and renters to repair or replace uninsured/underinsured disaster damaged property. SBA disaster loans offer an affordable way for individuals and businesses to recover from declared disasters. SBA covers losses not covered by insurance or funding from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for both personal and business needs. (https://www.sba.gov/funding-programs/disaster-assistance). The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) grants to individuals and businesses: USDA provides emergency assistance for its various disaster relief programs under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief Emergency Assistance Act (Stafford Act), Agriculture Secretary disaster designations, Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, as well as other authorizing legislation. The USDA grants comprise a variety of assistance programs, from nutrition to assistance. More information on each program available at: https://www.usda.gov/sites/default/files/documents/fact-sheet-usda-programs-assist-individuals-small-businesses_1.pdf. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Grants: Hazard mitigation is any sustainable action that reduces or eliminates long-term risk to people and property from future disasters. Mitigation planning breaks the cycle of disaster damage, reconstruction and repeated damage. Hazard mitigation includes long-term solutions that reduce the impact of disasters in the future. FEMA's hazard mitigation assistance provides funding for eligible mitigation measures that reduce disaster losses. (https://www.fema.gov/grants/mitigation). Federal Transit Administration Emergency Relief Program: FTA’s emergency relief program provides assistance to public transit operators in the aftermath of an emergency or major disaster. The program helps states and public transportation systems pay for protecting, repairing, and/or replacing equipment and facilities that may suffer or have suffered serious damage as a result of an emergency, including natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes. The program can fund capital projects to protect, repair, or replace facilities or equipment that are in danger of suffering serious damage, or have suffered serious damage as a result of an emergency. The program can also fund the operating costs of evacuation, rescue operations, temporary public transportation service, or reestablishing, expanding, or relocating service before, during or after an emergency. (https://www.transit.dot.gov/funding/grant-programs/emergency-relief-program). The Community Development Block Grant Disaster Recovery (CDBG-DR): CDBG is a federally funded flexible program that provides communities with resources to address a wide range of housing and community development needs. It provides annual grants on a formula basis to states, cities, and counties to develop viable urban communities by providing decent housing and a suitable living environment, and by expanding economic opportunities, principally for low- and moderate-income persons. CDBG-DR provides disaster recovery grants to rebuild the affected areas, and provide crucial seed money to start the recovery process. Since CDBG Disaster Recovery (CDBG-DR) assistance may fund a broad range of recovery activities, HUD can help communities and neighborhoods that otherwise might not recover due to limited resources. (https://www.hudexchange.info/programs/cdbg-dr/). Homeowner’s insurance: Standard homeowners policies cover a wide range of potential disasters, from tornadoes to lightning strikes to winter storm damage. However, policies do vary. For instance, floods, earthquakes, sewer back up and maintenance damages, tsunamis,thunderstorm damages are not covered by homeowners’ insurance policies. (https://www.iii.org/article/which-disasters-are-covered-by-homeowners-insurance). For policy information differing across regions and disasters, refer to: https://www.uphelp.org/homeowners-insurance-and-common-natural-disasters.

CSU IRB

Created Jul 27, 2017 (00:00) by Jong Lee

Colorado State University Institutional Review Board: “The University is required to comply with the federal regulations governing review of research that involves human subjects (see the IRB Human Subjects Policy). Annually CSU IRB must assure the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) that the University is complying with the requirements of 45 CFR 46. This is an NIH reference, but has been incorporated virtually verbatim into the regulations of 16 other federal agencies; additionally, the regulations state that the University will apply the same standards to all projects involving human subjects, regardless of funding or funding source. Activities are to be reviewed as proposals, and may not wait until funding for the activity is forthcoming.” (https://www.research.colostate.edu/ricro/irb/)