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Earthquake Damage Fragility Curves

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

Transportation A fragility curve is a way of representing the ratio between earthquake intensity, and damage. These curves can be used to analyze damage, and make predictions on future events like aftershocks or the effect of the earthquake in other situations. Seismic fragility curves for classes of highway bridges are essential for risk assessment of highway transportation networks exposed to seismic hazards. (Mander 1999; 89) [Mander, J. B. (1999). Fragility curve development for assessing the seismic vulnerability of highway bridges. ]

Earthquake-Induced Tsunami Modeling

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

Tsunami modeling involves numerical simulation of tsunami generation in deep or coastal waters due to earthquake-induced slip, tsunami propagation, and tsunami inundation. These modeling may be deterministic, involving a particular worst case historic scenario event, or probabilistic in nature involving multiple tsunami sources, in which randomness of the fault source mechanisms (e.g., peak slip location, slip distribution), event magnitude, wave propagation are explicitly considered. The output of such models are tsunami hazard maps that provides mean annual rate of different tsunami intensity measures (e.g., inudnation depth, flow velocity, momentum flux, etc.), which can be used for modeling of evauations, debris modeling and management, as well as design or assessment of the built enviroment.

Earthquake-Triggered Tsunami Cascading Hazard Models

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

In earthquake-induced cascading tsunami hazard models, both the earthquake and tsunami hazards originating from tsunami-genic seismic sources are explicitly considered for near-field tsunami events affecting a coastal community. The cascading hazard model is conditional on the earthquake triggering the tsunami event.

econometric strategies

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Jong Lee

Synonym(s):
  • Information Science

Econometric Strategies can take into consideration of vastly different components such as statistics, estimation, matrixes, and variables in order to formulate models or displays of information that offer strategic benefit. (Goldberger)

economic impact modeling strategies

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Jong Lee

Synonym(s):
  • Business

Models that are used "to analyze the economic impact of a wide variety of regional projects, including projects relating to agriculture, the environment, natural resources, and tourism and recreation.

EERI

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Jong Lee

Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI). "Nonprofit organization" that "has contributed significantly toward accomplishment of the modern goal of Earthquake Engineering." (Bozorgnia and Bertero, 8)

EF intensity

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Jong Lee

Synonym(s):
  • Engineering

Tornado Hazard. EF intensity refers to the strength (and wind speed) of a tornado based on the 28 damage indicators. Enhance Fujita (EF) scale has a wide range from EF0, which is the weakest, to EF5, which is the strongest. EF rectangular boxes using gradient techniques were utilized to account for the variation of intensity along tornado paths (Standohar-Alfano et al. 2017).

Elasticity

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Jong Lee

"The ability of an object or material to resume its normal shape after being stretched or compressed; stretchiness"(Oxford Languages; web) "The quality of being adaptable; the responsiveness of a dependent economic variable to changes in influencing factors" (Dictionary.com, n.d.; web)

Emergency Response Planning

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

Synonym(s):
  • Policy

Emergency Response Planning concerns the five cyclical phases a jurisdiction undergoes (preparedness, prevention, mitigation, response and recovery) in order to develop and maintain an up-to-date Emergency Operations Plan (EOP). EOPs can be thought of as a document theat is maintained by various jurisdictioanl levels that describe the emergency response plan in response to a wide variety of potential hazards. Policies concerning the modification of hazards, policies that change the amount of building inventory, polcies that alter the Hazard Fragility Curves, and policies which decrease social and economic consequences can have a significant impact on the emergency planning response, pre and post-disaster, and need to be modeled in order to better inform planners, engineers and stakeholders on the plausible directions of emergency response planning.

Employment Disruption

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Human-Resources "A variety of temporary operational disruptions can interfere with employees’ ability to get to and from work. Examples include construction that affects building access, special events, transit interruptions, etc." (University of Washington Human Resources. 2019) [University of Washington Human Resources. (2019). Work disruption planning. Retrieved from https://hr.uw.edu/ops/work-disruption-planning/]

Endoxastic Uncertainty

Created Apr 17, 2019 (00:00) by Jong Lee

Synonym(s):
  • Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainties; Propagation of Uncertainties; Aleatory vs. Epistemic (Model-Based) Uncertainties; Epistemic Uncertainties; Uncertainty Modeling

Endodoxastic uncertainties are the uncertainties that arise due to the inherent randomness of the natural world and limits in our understanding. There are limits in our understanding of both the natural world, for example, whether a given event will occur, and how engineering works will perform, such as the behavior and response of a structure or infrastructure, the variability in material properties (e.g., characteristics of soil, steel, or concrete), geometry, and external boundary conditions (e.g., loads or physical constraints). From: Gardoni, P. and Murphy, C. (2014). "A Scale of Risk", Risk Analysis, 34(7), 1208-1227.

Energy Systems

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

"A system primarily designed to supply energy-services to end-users."(Groscurth et al. 1995, https://www.arrhenius.de/uploads/media/NEMESS_energy_1995.pdf)

Environmental Degradation

Created Aug 11, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

The exhaustion of the world's natural resources: land, air, water, soil, etc. (El Haggar 2010; 135) [El Haggar, S. (2010). Sustainable industrial design and waste management: cradle-to-cradle for sustainable development. Academic Press.]

Environmental Stressors

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

General: Environmental stressors are “constraints or pressure on the environment. Natural and/or human-directed causes can be the reasons for environmental stressors. An example of a human cause is the generation of pollution. An example of natural events/cause is a drought.” (The Law Dictionary 2019; web) [The Law Dictionary. (2019). What is Environmental Stress? Retrieved online: https://thelawdictionary.org/environmental-stress/]. Human Behavior and Environment: "The concept of the environment ranges from events that are quite broad and distant (e.g., roads, bodies of water, societal changes, the density of population in a city) to those that are very immediate (e.g., the actions of an employer, a crowded room, the physical layout of one's house). The concept of stress has often meant environmental demands that require major adaptation from the individual. Alternatively, it has signified the response to such demands. Stress is more properly seen as a special kind of transaction or relationship between two systems, person and environment, or between two or more intraindividual systems (e.g., id, ego, and super- ego processes) as in the psychoanalytic approach to conflict." (90) [Lazarus, R. S., & Cohen, J. B. (1977). Environmental stress. In Human behavior and environment (pp. 89-127). Springer, Boston, MA.]

epistemic

Created Apr 17, 2019 (00:00) by Jong Lee

Synonym(s):
  • Philosophy

From Ancient Greek epistēmikós, of or relating to knowledge or cognition, or the conditions for acquiring it.

epistemic uncertainties

Created Apr 17, 2019 (00:00) by Jong Lee

Synonym(s):
  • Engineering Planning and Design

Type of endoxastic uncertainties that refer to the uncertainties that arise from the limits of our knowledge. Epistemic uncertainties include 1) statistical uncertainty, which arises in the process of estimating inherent variability and is due to scarcity of data; 2) measurement error, which is the error in measuring or observing data for statistical analysis; 3) model error, which is the error inherent in idealized mathematical models used to describe complex physical phenomena; 4) human error, which is the unavoidable process of making errors in the design, construction and operation of facilities by human beings.

EPN Power Flow Analysis

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

A power flow study (load-flow study) is a steady-state analysis whose target is to determine the voltages, currents, and real and reactive power flows in a system under a given load conditions. [http://www.egr.unlv.edu/~eebag/Power%20Flow%20Analysis.pdf]

Evacuation

Created Apr 17, 2019 (00:00) by Jong Lee

“Organized, phased, and supervised withdrawal, dispersal, or removal of civilians from dangerous or potentially dangerous areas, and their reception and care in safe areas.” (Homeland Security 2019) [Homeland Security. (2019). Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place. Retrieved from https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1564165488078-09ab4aac641f77fe7b7dd30bad21526b/Planning_Considerations_Evacuation_and_Shelter-in-Place.pdf]

Event Tree Analysis Techniques

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Engineering "Event Tree Analysis is commonly used to identify the consequences that can result following the occurrence of a potentially hazardous event." (Andrews and Dunnett 2000; 230) [Andrews, J. D., & Dunnett, S. J. (2000). Event-tree analysis using binary decision diagrams. IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 49(2), 230-238.]