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ICT

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Emergency-Management "Information and Communication Technologies." (Palen, "Citizen Communication...,", 2007, 727) Technologies used to provide information about various topics such as a disaster and/or communicate with emergency personnel, victims of disaster, the general public, etc. [Palen, Leysia, and Sophia B. Liu. “Citizen Communications in Crisis: Anticipating a Future of ICT-Supported Public Participation.” CHI 2007 Proceedings (Emergency Action). April 28- May 3, 2007, San Jose, CA, 10 pages (727-736).]

Ignition Probability Line (IPL)

Created Aug 11, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Fire-Safety-Science The threshold at which a material is likely to light on fire (ignite) with a certain probability. Most often used is the 50% ignition probability line. (Zak et al. 2014) [Zak, C. A. S. E. Y., Urban, J. A. M. E. S., Tran, V., & Fernandez-Pello, A. C. (2014). Flaming ignition behavior of hot steel and aluminum spheres landing in cellulose fuel beds. Fire Safety Science, 11, 1368-1378.]

Ignition Probability of Structures

Created Aug 5, 2020 (00:00) by Jong Lee

The likelihood of a structure to light on fire. This is based on the flammability, distance between structures, and the environment around a structure.

Infrastructure Interdependencies

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Elizabeth Bittel)

"An infrastructure interdependency is generally defined as a bidirectional relationship between two assets in which the operations of both assets affect each other." (Lewis et al. - n.d. https://www.preventionweb.net/files/66506_f415finallewisandpetitcriticalinfra.pdf)

Infrastructure Risk and Resilience Assessment

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Elizabeth Bittel)

Engineering Tests to assess resilience and risk to infrastructure systems, in which tests for resilience would measure a system’s robustness, redundancy, resourcefulness, and rapidity.

Input-Output Models

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Economics "These models provide multipliers that can be used to estimate the economy-wide effects that an initial change in economic activity has on a regional economy. The initial change involves a change in final demand such as a new construction project, an increase in government purchases, or an increase in exports." (Bess and Ambargis 2011; 2) [Bess, R., & Ambargis, Z. O. (2011, March). Input-output models for impact analysis: suggestions for practitioners using RIMS II multipliers. In 50th Southern Regional Science Association Conference (pp. 23-27). Morgantown, WV: Southern Regional Science Association.]

Intelligent Design Algorithms

Created Jan 12, 2021 (14:51) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

These are a large class of probabilistic optimization algorithms, which solve varieties of complex optimization problems by mimicking the physical or biological phenomena, including Simulated Annealing, Genetic Algorithms, Ant Colony Optimization, and Particle Swarm Optimization and so on. These algorithms are successful in solving multi-extremes function problems, combinatorial optimization problems, and other complex large scale optimization problems. [Yang, JianGang & Yang, JinQiu. (2011). Intelligence Optimization Algorithms: A Survey. International Journal of Advancements in Computing Technology. 3. 144-152. 10.4156/ijact.vol3.issue4.16. ]

Intelligent Search Methods

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Computer-Science Techniques that tailor source code to "increase searching power for both novice and expert software engineers" in a source code exploration system. (Liu & Lethbridge 2002; 409) [Liu, H., & Lethbridge, T. C. (2002). Intelligent search methods for software maintenance. Information Systems Frontiers, 4(4), 409-423.]

Intensity Measures (IMs)

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Civil-Engineering Variable that describes the intensity of a hazard, typically earthquake hazards. Examples include peake ground acceleration or spectral acceleration. [Luco, N., & Cornell, C. A. (2007). Structure-specific scalar intensity measures for near-source and ordinary earthquake ground motions. Earthquake Spectra, 23(2), 357-392.] Medicine A scale of how much pain a patient feels, often from 0-10, used by healthcare professionals to better understand chronic pain. (Jensen et al. 1999) [Jensen, M. P., Turner, J. A., Romano, J. M., & Fisher, L. D. (1999). Comparative reliability and validity of chronic pain intensity measures. Pain, 83(2), 157-162.]

Intensity Models

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

The use of explicitly represented knowledge in image analysis... which directly represent the image intensities, i.e., the appearance of objects (Rohr 2001; xi) [Rohr, K. (2001). Landmark-based image analysis: using geometric and intensity models (Vol. 21). Springer Science & Business Media.]

Interdependency

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

Synonym(s):
  • Interdependency Relationships; Interdependency Modeling

General: Interdependencies occur when the function and or state of one system is dependent on another system and that system is also dependent on the former. Interdependency can occur between any two systems yet has been most widely studied between infrastructure systems at this point. (NIST 2016) [NIST (2016). Community resilience planning guide for buildings and infrastructure systems, Vols. I and II. NIST. ]

Interdependency Modeling

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

Synonym(s):
  • Interdependency Relationships; Interdependency

General: A model that is used to express the functional relationships within an interdependent system. (Guidotti et al. 2016) [Guidotti, R., Chmielewski, H., Unnikrishnan, V., Gardoni, P., McAllister, T., & van de Lindt, J. (2016). Modeling the resilience of critical infrastructure: The role of network dependencies. Sustainable and resilient infrastructure, 1(3-4), 153-168.]

Interdependency Relationships

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

Synonym(s):
  • Interdependency; Interdependency Modeling

General: This relationship is characterized between two or more components or systems in which multiple connections between the two are essential for the function of each individually and in tandem. (NIST 2016) [NIST (2016). Community resilience planning guide for buildings and infrastructure systems, Vols. I and II. NIST. ] Engineering: This is a bidirectional relationship in which state of one infrastructure system is dependent and correlated to another infrastructure system and vice versa. The two infrastructures systems are dependent on each other. (Rinaldi et al., 2001) [Rinaldi, S. M., Peerenboom, J. P., & Kelly, T. K. (2001). Identifying, understanding, and analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies. IEEE control systems magazine, 21(6), 11-25.] Social: The relationship has traditionally been characterized when individuals share goals and each individual's outcomes are impacted by others and their outcomes impact others. Recently this characterization has been expanded to larger systems and the impact of shared goals between two larger bodies. (Deutsch, 1962) [Deutsch, M. (1962). Cooperation and trust: Some theoretical notes.] (Johnson and Johnson, 2005) [Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2005). New developments in social interdependence theory. Genetic, social, and general psychology monographs, 131(4), 285-358.]

Interdependent or Cascading Social/Behavioral/Economic Systems

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

Sociology In Social Science/Systems: although their scope and methodologies overlap somewhat, one can distinguish the following main concepts and tools: self-organization, nonlinear dynamics, synergetics, turbulence, dynamical systems, catastrophes, instabilities, stochastic processes, chaos, graphs and networks, cellular automata, adaptive systems, genetic algorithms and computational intelligence. (Garas 2018) [Garas, A. (2018). Interconnected Networks. Cham: Springer International Publishing.]

Interfaces

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Synonym(s):
  • Interface Variables

Computer-Science: "The hardware and software through which a human and a computer could communicate" (Laurel and Mountford 1990) [Laurel, B., & Mountford, S. J. (1990). The art of human-computer interface design. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc.] Engineering Modeling: The boundary where two or more systems join and is usually characterized by an interdependent relation. (Winkler et al. 2011) [Winkler, J., Dueñas-Osorio, L., Stein, R., & Subramanian, D. (2011). Interface network models for complex urban infrastructure systems. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 17(4), 138-150.]

Interface Variables

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Synonym(s):
  • Interfaces

Modeling: Measures by which the degree of connectedness between two systems or their components is evaluated (via clustering, betweenness, etc.) at a given interface. (Winkler et al. 2011) [Winkler, J., Dueñas-Osorio, L., Stein, R., & Subramanian, D. (2011). Interface network models for complex urban infrastructure systems. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 17(4), 138-150.] Computer-Science: Measures of the different features a software uses to communicate with users or other computing components. (Lohse and Spiller 1998) [Lohse, G. L., and Spiller, P. (1998). Quantifying the effect of user interface design features on cyberstore traffic and sales. In CHI (Vol. 98, pp. 211-218).]

Intergenerational Transfers of Risk

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Psychology How and to what severity social, behavioral, and health problems are passed from parents to children. (Serbin and Karp 2004) [Serbin, L. A., & Karp, J. (2004). The intergenerational transfer of psychosocial risk: Mediators of vulnerability and resilience. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 55, 333-363.]

Inter-Institutional Agreements (IAA)

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

An IRB Authorization Agreement (IAA) is a special agreement between two institutions who are engaged in human subjects research. An IAA allows an institution with a Federalwide Assurance (FWA) to extend the applicability of its FWA to cover another institution. In practice, this means an institution’s IRB will be the IRB of Record which reviews the study. These agreements help to minimize regulatory burden on the IRB review and approval process by limiting the IRB review to one institution. IAAs are sometimes referred to as IRB of Records. When signing the IAA, one institution is designated the lead IRB or IRB of Record. (https://www.montclair.edu/institutional-review-board/applications-forms-and-templates/irb-authorization-agreements/)

Inundation Hazard

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

The flooding hazard associated with a particular event. Can refer to hurricanes, tsunamis, sea-level rise, or any other type of flooding hazard

Inventory Collection Methodology

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Life-Cycle-Assessment A method of data collection. This data is of a specific category for the purpose of creating a complete list of items, data, etc. within this category. (Kellens et al. 2012) [Kellens, K., Dewulf, W., Overcash, M., Hauschild, M. Z., & Duflou, J. R. (2012). Methodology for systematic analysis and improvement of manufacturing unit process life-cycle inventory (UPLCI)—CO 2 PE! initiative (cooperative effort on process emissions in manufacturing). Part 1: Methodology description. The international journal of life cycle assessment, 17(1), 69-78.]

Inventory Levels

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

A condition of a type of infrastructure, such as building inventory, stock inventory, housing inventory, etc.

Inventory Recovery Time

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

In civil engineering, inventory recovery time is defined as how quickly a category of infrastructure is replaced or regained after loss. In a disaster scenario, this can be used to characterize how long it takes for infrastructure, such as building inventory, to be rebuilt after a hazard/disaster. (Lin et al. 2016) [Lin, P., Wang, N., & Ellingwood, B. R. (2016). A risk de-aggregation framework that relates community resilience goals to building performance objectivess. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, 1(1-2), 1-13.]

inverse analysis

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Jong Lee

Synonym(s):
  • Mechanical Engineering

General: Parameter estimation or design optimization by which the stochastic unknown components are modeled by changing input values in the known model or system till the outputs match observed data. (Calvello and Finno, 2004) [Calvello, M., & Finno, R. J. (2004). Selecting parameters to optimize in model calibration by inverse analysis. Computers and Geotechnics, 31(5), 410-424.]