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Landslides

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Elizabeth Bittel)

Landslides occur when a piece or pieces land are removed from its position due to torrential rainfalls, flooding or earthquake which could cause severe damage to communities. (Yang et al. 2011) [Yang, S. R., Shen, C. W., Huang, C. M., Lee, C. T., Cheng, C. T., & Chen, C. Y. (2011). Prediction of mountain road closure due to rainfall-induced landslides. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 26(2), 197-202.] Geology;Civil-and-Environmental-Engineering â<80><9c>A mass movement of soil, mud, and (or) rock down a slope.â<80><9d> (USGS 2007; 44) [United States Geological Survey (USGS). (2007). Putting down roots in Earthquake Country: Your handbook for the Central United States. Retrieved from: https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/119/pdf/GIP119_ScreenVersion.pdf ]

learning algorithm

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Jong Lee

Synonym(s):
  • Computer Science

A learning algorithm is an algorithm used in machine learning to help the technology to imitate the human learning process. Combined with technologies like neural networks, learning algorithms create involved, sophisticated learning programs. [https://www.techopedia.com/definition/33426/learning-algorithm]

Life-Cycle

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

General The disaster life cycle includes several phases: including Mitigation, Disaster Preparedness, Disaster Response, and Disaster Recovery. “Mitigation: Disaster mitigation work involves directly preventing future emergencies and/or minimizing their negative effects. It requires hazard risk analysis and the application of strategies to reduce the likelihood that hazards will become disasters, such as flood-proofing homes or buying insurance. Disaster preparedness: Disaster preparedness efforts include plans or preparations made in advance of an emergency that help individuals and communities get ready. Such preparations might include the stocking of food and water, or the gathering and screening of willing volunteers. Disaster response: Disaster response work includes any actions taken in the midst of or immediately following an emergency, including efforts to save lives and to prevent further property damage. Ideally, disaster response involves putting already established disaster preparedness plans into motion. Typically, this phase of the disaster life cycle draws the most attention. Disaster recovery: Disaster recovery happens after damages have been assessed, and involves actions to return the affected community to its pre-disaster state or better – and ideally to make it less vulnerable to future risk. Risk identification includes understanding the nature of hazards as well as understanding the nature of vulnerabilities. Subsequent efforts may range from physical upgrades to education, training, and public awareness campaigns.” (Center for Disaster Philanthropy; web) [Center for Disaster Philanthropy. (2019). The Disaster Life Cycle. Retrieved from: https://disasterphilanthropy.org/issue-insight/the-disaster-life-cycle/]

Linear Programming

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Mathematics; Linear programming is concerned with the maximization or minimization of a linear objective function in many variables subject to linear equality and inequality constraints. [Dantzig, G. B., & Thapa, M. N. (2006). Linear programming 1: introduction. Springer Science & Business Media]

Liquefaction

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

Earthquake engineering: “An earthquake-induced process in which saturated, loose, granular soils lose shear strength and behaves like a liquid due to an increase in pore-water pressure during earthquake shaking.” [ASCE-41 2017]

Local Spatial Resolution

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

Remote-sensing Spatial resolution is a measure of the smallest object that can be resolved by the sensor, or the ground area imaged for the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of the sensor, or the linear dimension on the ground represented by each pixel. In a local context this is the resolution or feedback of pixels in a group or local given area. (Leslie and Al 2019; 1.2.5 - 1.2.1.5) [Leslie, R. V., & Al., E. (2019). Spatial Resolution. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/spatial-resolution ]

LODES Data

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

Economics The Origin-Destination Employment Statistics is a portion of data collected by the US census bureau in order to analyze questions on economical, spatial, and demographic in relation to work places and home-to-work flows.The products are complementary in the sense that they measure similar activities but each has important unique characteristics that provide information that the other measure cannot. (Graham et al. 2014; abstract) [Graham, M. R., Kutzbach, M. J., & McKenzie, B. (2014, February 02). Design Comparison of LODES and ACS Commuting Data Products, by Matthew R. Graham; Mark J. Kutzbach; Brian McKenzie. Retrieved from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cen/wpaper/14-38.html ]

Long Span Structures

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Elizabeth Bittel)

Civil Engineering "Long-span structures create unobstructed, column-free spaces greater than 30 meters (100 feet) for a variety of functions. These include activities where visibility is important for large audiences (auditoriums and covered stadiums), where flexibility is important (exhibition halls and certain types of manufacturing facility), where large movable objects are housed (aircraft hangars), and where their need to negotiate water bodies or other roads (suspension or cable-stayed bridges)." [Shizhao, S. (1998). DEVELOPMENT OF LONG-SPAN STRUCTURES--A REVIEW AND PROSPECT. China Civil Engineering Journal, 3.]

Long Term Recovery

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

Civil Engineering "Disaster Recovery involves a set of policies, tools, and procedures to enable the recovery or continuation of vital technology infrastructure and systems following a natural or human-induced disaster. Long-term recovery is typically on the years scale after the transient effects of the contingency have been managed. It can bring about a new steady state after disasters" [Blackman, D., Nakanishi, H., & Benson, A. M. (2017). Disaster resilience as a complex problem: Why linearity is not applicable for long-term recovery. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 121, 89-98.]

Long-Term Road Network Recovery Scheduling

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Transportation "The main transportation-related challenges following a disaster are strongly connected to the time-scale. This is illustrated by considering three distinct periods: the short-term (~12–24 h), the mid-term (~12–24 days), and the long-term (~12–24) months. In the long-term (e.g., 12–24 months), the main goal is to restore the transportation system back to its condition prior to the disaster." [Rey, David, and Hillel Bar-Gera. "Long-term scheduling for road network disaster recovery." International journal of disaster risk reduction 42 (2020): 101353.]

loss assessment at parcel scale

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Jong Lee

Synonym(s):
  • Ecology

Loss assessment is the examination and evaluation of the losses sustained by an entity or at a location; in the case of disasters, loss assessment typically includes the investigation of damage or destruction of physical infrastructure or other features at a location quantified as the dollar value attributed to said damage [Disdaroglu and Yigitcanlar 2014]. The parcel scale indicates that the loss assessment is performed at individual plots of land [Manson et al. 2009], for example for individual tax parcels, and may use tax assessed improvement value to measure the loss in financial value attributed to a disaster event [Hamideh et al. 2018]. [Disdaroglu, D., and Yigitcanlar, T. (2014). “A parcel-scale assessment tool to measure sustainability through urban ecosystem components: The MUSIX model.” Ecological Indicators, 41, 115-130. Manson, S.M., Sander, H.A., Ghosh, D., Oakes, J.M., Orfield, Jr, M.W., Craig, W.J., Luce, Jr, T.F., Myott, E. and Sun, S. (2009), Parcel Data for Research and Policy. Geography Compass, 3: 698-726. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8198.2008.00209.x Hamideh, S., Peacock, W.G., and Van Zandt, S. (2018). “Housing Recovery after Disasters: Primary versus Seasonal/Vacation Housing Markets in Coastal Communities.” Natural Hazards Review 19(2).]