# N

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## Near Source Earthquakes

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Engineering Is a "near field ground motion" which "can produce ground motion characteristic different from that in the far-field because of the directivity and fling step effects. The direction of rupture propagation relative to the site, forward-directivity, and possible permanent ground displacements, fling step, are the major effects in near fault region. Forward directivity occurs where the fault rupture propagates with a velocity close to the shear-wave velocity. Displacement associated with such a shear-wave velocity is largest in the fault-normal direction for strike-slip faults. The fling step is the static component of the near-fault ground motion and is characterized by a ramp-like step in the displacement time-history and a one-sided pulse in the velocity time-history." (Bhandari et al. 2018; 992) [Bhandari, M., Bharti, S. D., Shrimali, M. K., & Datta, T. K. (2018). The numerical study of base-isolated buildings under near-field and far-field earthquakes. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 22(6), 989-1007.]

## Network-Based Systems

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

Suggest changing to “Networked systems” and defined as: Network Science "Systems whose physical layout or operational logic can be abstracted and modeled as single or multiple networks (or graphs). A network is a collection of connected objects that are referred to as nodes or vertices and are usually drawn as points. The connections between the nodes are called links or edges and usually are drawn as lines between points." [Newman, M. (2018). Networks. Oxford university press.]

## Network Flows Approaches

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Optimization "Approaches based on network optimization and physical operating characteristics of networks (e.g., flows on arcs and mass balance at nodes) that are synthesized as algorithms to solve practical problems, such as optimal flow supply-demand satisfaction in infrastructure systems. Problem instances can be presented as a network of vertices and edges, with a capacity associated with each edge over which commodities flow." [Ahuja, R. K., Magnanti, T. L., & Orlin, J. B. (1988). Network flows.]

## Network Level Restoration Modeling

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Civil Engineering "the act or process of representing a community as a relational network of its subsystems, and using such a representation as a model to determine restoration steps to reach original conditions after damage." [González, A. D., Dueñas‐Osorio, L., Sánchez‐Silva, M., & Medaglia, A. L. (2016). The interdependent network design problem for optimal infrastructure system restoration. Computer‐Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 31(5), 334-350.]

## Network Performance Metrics

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Network Science "Variety of useful quantities or measures that capture particular features of the network topology and network functionality, which are calculated based on the structure and dynamics of the network" [Newman, Mark. Networks. Oxford university press, 2018.]

## Network Reliability

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Network Reliability "A network's ability to carry out a desired operation as intended, such as commodity flows, for a design life and under design constraints, and expressed as a probability value. The reliability of engineered networks necessitates connectivity. In addition, the problem of determining the reliability of systems, including networks, whose components can have one or more failure modes, often arises in a variety of applications, ranging from telecommunication, transportation, power systems, and mechanical systems to integrated circuits and computer communication systems or large software structure." [Gertsbakh, I. B., & Shpungin, Y. (2016). Models of network reliability: analysis, combinatorics, and Monte Carlo. CRC press.]

## Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) Models

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

Earthquake-Engineering “The ‘Next Generation of Ground-Motion Attenuation Models’ (NGA) project is a multidisciplinary research program coordinated by the Lifelines Program of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), in partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Southern California Earthquake Center. The objective of the project is to develop new ground-motion prediction relations through a comprehensive and highly interactive research program. Five sets of ground-motion models were developed by teams working independently but interacting with one another throughout the development process. The development of ground-motion models was supported by other project components, which included (1) developing an updated and expanded PEER database of recorded ground motions, including supporting information on the strong-motion record processing, earthquake sources, travel path, and recording station site conditions; (2) conducting supporting research projects to provide guidance on the selected functional forms of the ground-motion models; and (3) conducting a program of interactions throughout the development process to provide input and reviews from both the scientific research and engineering user communities.” (Power et al. 2008; abstract) [Power, M., Chiou, B., Abrahamson, N., Bozorgnia, Y., Shantz, T., & Roblee, C. (2008). An overview of the NGA project. Earthquake spectra, 24(1), 3-21.]

## NHERI

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

Acronym for Natural Hazards Engineering Research Infrastructure. A program established in 2015 by NSF as a distributed, multi-user, national research facility for use by the Nation’s natural hazards engineering and social science research community to enhance community resilience

## NOAA’s Commit/MOST Framework

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

The National Ocean and Atmoshperic Administration (NOAA) Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) developed the Community Model Interface for Tsunami (ComMIT), which is an internet-enabled open-source interface for tsunami model development. The model requires informatin on : (1) bottom and coastal topography; (2) initial and boundary conditions (bathymetry grids); and, (3) model run specific information such as time-step, spatial resolution and length of model run to model deepwater propagation and inundation in an tsunami event. The MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami) model, developed by Titov of Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) and Synolakis of University of Southern California, is the standard model used at the NCTR, which is a suite of numerical simulation codes capable of simulating three processes of tsunami evolution: generation, propagation, and inundation.

## Nodal and Network Components

Created Jan 12, 2021 (14:51) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

Network Science "A component is a subset of the vertices and edges of a network such that there exists at least one path from each member of that subset to each other member, and such that no other vertex in the network can be added to the subset while preserving this property. In engineering, a physical facility is often thought of as an element (node or link). " [Newman, Mark. Networks. Oxford university press, 2018.]

## Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE)

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

Engineering “A wide group of analysis techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage.” [Cartz, Louis (1995). Nondestructive Testing. ASM International. ISBN 978-0-87170-517-4]

## Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO)

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

NGO: An entity with an association that is based on interests of its members, individuals, or institutions. It is not created by a government, but it may work cooperatively with the government. Such organizations serve a public purpose, not a private benefit. Examples of NGOs include faith-based charity organizations and the American Red Cross. NGOs, including voluntary and faith-based groups, provide relief services to sustain life, reduce physical and emotional distress, and promote the recovery of disaster survivors. Often these groups provide specialized services that help individuals with disabilities. NGOs and voluntary organizations play a major role in assisting emergency managers before, during, and after an emergency. (FEMA Glossary 2020; web) [FEMA Glossary. (2020). Retrieved from: https://www.fema.gov/about/glossary

## Nonlinear Static

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

Engineering "Nonlinear static analysis, commonly referred to as pushover analysis, is a method for determining the ultimate load and deflection capability of a structure. Local nonlinear structure effects, such as flexural hinges at the member joints, are modeled and the structure is deformed or "pushed" until enough hinges form to develop a collapse mechanism or until the plastic deformation limit is reached at the hinges." (Wiley 2001) [Wiley, J. (2001). Nonlinear Static Analysis. Retrieved from http://structsource.com/analysis/types/pushover.html]

## Nonlinear Time History Analysis

Created Jan 12, 2021 (14:51)

Civil Engineering “A structural analysis procedure to simulate nonlinear response of structures over the time span of dynamic excitations such as earthquakes.” [Adopted from Pant, D. R., Wijeyewickrema, A. C., & ElGawady, M. A. (2013)]

## Non-Stationarities

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

Engineering "Nonstationarity is a feature of a stochastic process that violates the basic non-changing assumptions of stationary first and second moments (such as the mean and variance). In particular, a nonstationary process may have a time-varying mean or autocovariance. A deterministic function of time is also a nonstationary process." [Lutes, L. D., & Sarkani, S. (1997). Stochastic analysis of structural and mechanical vibrations. Prentice Hall.]

## Non-Stationary Spatial and Temporal Stochastic Models (Discrete and Continuous)

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

Environmental-Engineering Analysis and prediction of a process over a certain area and timespan that is both randomly determined and without a single source or fixed point of analysis to consider uncetrainty.[Wheater, H. S., Chandler, R. E., Onof, C. J., Isham, V. S., Bellone, E., Yang, C., ... & Segond, M. L. (2005). Spatial-temporal rainfall modelling for flood risk estimation. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 19(6), 403-416.]

## Nonstationary Stochastic Models

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

It refers to stochastic processes whose underlying probability distributions are varying with the selected index set (e.g., time, space) of the process

## Numerical Simulations

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

Science and Engineering "A numerical simulation is a calculation that is run on a computer following a program that implements a mathematical model for a physical system. Numerical simulations are required to study the behaviour of systems whose mathematical models are too complex to provide analytical solutions, as in most nonlinear systems." (Nature.com; web) [nature.com (n.d.) Numerical Simulations. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/subjects/numerical-simulations]