# P

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## Parameters

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

A parameter is a quantity that influences the output of a model and can be constant or variable. When variable, the range of possible values identifies a collection of distinct cases in a problem. In most of mathematical problems, parameters are held constant, while in statistical problems parameters adopt a range of values and are variable. For example, in an ordinary regression model, parameters are deterministic and are just represented by a number. In contrast, in a Bayesian linear regression model, parameters have statistical distributions and can adopt a range of values. In simpler cases, a parameter represents “a definable, measurable, and constant or variable characteristic, dimension, property, or value, selected from a set of data (or population) because it is considered essential to understanding a situation (or in solving a problem).” Mean and standard deviation of a measurable characteristic of a population are examples of parameters in such cases. Similarly, in the context of fragilities, typically fragility parameters are median and dispersion of a LogNormal distribution defining the fragility. Captured from: (https://www.britannica.com/topic/parameter; https://mathinsight.org/definition/parameter; http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/parameter.html)

## Particle Swarm Optimization

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, proposed by Kennedy and Eberhart, is a metaheuristic algorithm based on the concept of swarm intelligence capable of solving complex mathematics problems existing in engineering. [de Almeida, B. S. G., & Leite, V. C. (2019). Particle swarm optimization: A powerful technique for solving engineering problems. In Swarm Intelligence-Recent Advances, New Perspectives and Applications. IntechOpen.]

## Performance Metrics/Indicators

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

An engineering Key Performance Indicator (KPI) or metric is a clearly defined quantifiable measure that an engineering firm uses to gauge its success over time. [https://insightsoftware.com/blog/top-engineering-kpis-and-metric-examples/#:~:text=An%20engineering%20Key%20Performance%20Indicator,to%20project%20specific%20performance%20metrics.]

## Physical and Functional Limit States

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

A limit state is a condition of a structure beyond which it no longer fulfills the relevant design criteria. The condition may refer to a degree of loading or other actions on the structure, while the criteria refer to structural integrity, fitness for use, durability or other design requirements.

## Physical Infrastructure

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

General “The human-made physical systems, assets, projects and structures, publicly and/or privately owned that are used by or provide benefit to the public. Examples of infrastructure include utilities, bridges, levees, drinking water systems, electrical systems, communications systems, dams, sewage systems and roads.” (CALS Program 2019, ONLINE) [CALS Program. (2019). Emergency Preparedness 11: Glossary of Terms. Retrieved from: https://calsprogram.org/manual/volume3/Section13/12-EMP11GlossaryofTerms13.html ]

## Physics-Based Hurricane Tracking

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

Atmospheric-Sciences;Physics There are three classes models for forecasting hurricane motion, or â<80><9c>track prediction models: â<80><9c>statistical models that try to relate the hurricanes' motion to experience with past storms, dynamical models that solve the fundamental physical equations that describe atmospheric motions under various simplifying assumptions, and statistical-dynamical models that use results from dynamical-model calculations as input to statistical descriptions of storm motion.â<80><9d> The GFDL Model is a full physics model, developed as a research tool at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, that has become fully operational. With its fine resolution (about 19km) and other special adaptations to the hurricane problem, it has an excellent forecasting record.â<80><9d> (AOML/NOAA 2019, ONLINE) [Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) / National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). (2019). Track Prediction Models. Retrieved from: https://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/nhurr97/MODELS.HTM ] â<80><9c>Over the past 20 years, significant advances have been made in the science of hurricane track forecasting. Much of this progress is due to advances in numerical weather prediction, that is, the use of computer models which approximate the fluid motions of the atmosphere to create forecasts of the weather at some time in the future. Since 1995, the GFDL Hurricane Prediction System has been used operationally by the National Hurricane Center and has consistently been one of the top-performing models utilized by NHC. The atmosphere is a fluid of air parcels in constant motion. The laws of physics dictate the manner in which that motion takes place. Mathematical equations can approximately describe the various motions and interactions that occur in the atmosphere. One of the biggest challenges for hurricane modeling is creating a model that can accurately depict the large-scale, environmental flow of the atmosphere that is largely responsible for steering the hurricane, while at the same time representing the finer scale details of the inner core region that determine the intensity of the storm. The GFDL hurricane model is able to reproduce the features that are important in a hurricane. These include the inflow of low-level air into the hurricaneâ<80><99>s inner core region; the supply of the stormâ<80><99>s energy from the evaporation of water from the ocean surface; updrafts of warm, moist air that feed thunderstorms in the core region of the storm, which help to intensify the hurricane; and the outflow of cooler, drier air at upper levels of the troposphere.â<80><9d> (More here: https://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/operational-hurricane-forecasting/) (GFDL 2019, ONLINE) [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). (2019). Operational Hurricane Track and Intensity Forecasting. Retrieved from: https://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/operational-hurricane-forecasting/ ]

## Physics-Based Model

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

A quantitative model that employs the priciples of physics in its makeup. (Attary et al. 2016) [Attary, N., van de Lindt, J. W., Unnikrishnan, V. U., Barbosa, A. R., & Cox, D. T. (2016). Methodology for development of physics-based tsunami fragilities. Journal of Structural Engineering, 143(5), 04016223.]

## Platform Integration

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

Platform Integration is a procedure during which the incorporation of various apps and services takes place. This software can be created from elements, bought as a pre-built output available for installation or obtained as an iPaaS. iPaaS stands for the Integration platform as a service.

## Population Displacement/Dislocation

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Elizabeth Bittel)

General “The forced removal or uprooting of people from their home or country, is a global phenomenon triggered by multiple causes including physical and socioeconomic vulnerabilities, exposure to natural hazards, civil war and ethno-religious conflicts, environmental and natural resource degradation, landlessness, food insecurity and megaproject developments...a process that derives from both preexisting and cumulative physical, socioeconomic, political and institutional vulnerabilities” [Rodríguez, H., Donner, W., & Trainor, J. E. (Eds.). (2017). Handbook of disaster research. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com] “The displacement of people refers to the forced movement of people from their locality or environment and occupational activities. It is a form of social change caused by a number of factors, the most common being armed conflict. Natural disasters, famine, development and economic changes may also be a cause of displacement. In regard to population displacement resulting from development there are typically two types: direct displacement, which leads to actual displacement of people from their locations and indirect displacement, which leads to a loss of livelihood. Forced to leave the home region to which they are attached and for which they have the knowledge to make a living most effectively, displaced populations often become impoverished. The displacement of people as a result of development projects, policies and processes therefore constitutes a social cost for development.” (UNESCO; web) [United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (n.d.) Displaced person / displacement. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/displaced-person-displacement/]

## Predictive Model

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Elizabeth Bittel)

General “Predictive modeling is a process that uses data mining and probability to forecast outcomes. Each model is made up of a number of predictors, which are variables that are likely to influence future results. Once data has been collected for relevant predictors, a statistical model is formulated. The model may employ a simple linear equation, or it may be a complex neural network, mapped out by sophisticated software. As additional data becomes available, the statistical analysis model is validated or revised.” (Rouse; web) [Rouse, M. and TechTarget. (n.d.) Predictive Modeling. Retrieved from: https://searchenterpriseai.techtarget.com/definition/predictive-modeling]

## Pre-Event Seismic Retrofit

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

Synonym(s):
• Retrofit; Prospective Retrofit

Earthquake-Engineering “Reinforcement or upgrading of existing structures to become more resistant and resilient to the damaging effects of seismic hazards. Examples of retrofitting include adding bracing to stiffen walls, reinforcing pillars, adding steel ties between walls and roofs, installing shutters on windows and improving the protection of important facilities and equipment.” (UNISDR; web)

## Pressure Deficit

Created Jan 12, 2021 (14:51)

Synonym(s):
• Pressure Deficit Model

Atmospheric-Science, Civil-and-Environmental-Engineering. A pressure deficit may be defined as the difference between a predefined or ambient pressure value and the lowest observed pressure measurement within a relative time frame corresponding to the passage of a tornado. These historical pressure deficit measurements in tornadoes ranged from 5 to 192 hPa. [Karstens, C. D., Samaras, T. M., Lee, B. D., Gallus Jr, W. A., & Finley, C. A. (2010). Near-ground pressure and wind measurements in tornadoes. Monthly Weather Review, 138(7), 2570-2588.]

## Pressure Deficit Model

Created Aug 13, 2020 (00:00)

Synonym(s):
• Pressure Deficit

Atmospheric-Science, Civil-and-Environmental-Engineering. "The total tornado pressure (pt) can be divided into wind pressure (pw), i.e., the pressure caused by the direct action of the air flow on a structure; and the pressure drop (pa), i.e., the atmospheric pressure change caused by the tornado vortex (Simiu & Scanlan, 1996) as Pt = Pw +Pa. A Rankine vortex model can be used to calculate the pressure deficit, pa." [Masoomi, H., & van de Lindt, J. W. (2017). Tornado community-level spatial damage prediction, including pressure deficit modeling. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, 2(4), 179-193.]

## Probabilistic Bounds on Forecasts

Created Jan 12, 2021 (14:51)

Atmospheric-Science;State-of-the-art wind power forecasts beyond a few hours ahead rely on global numerical weather prediction models to forecast the future large-scale atmospheric state. Often they provide initial and boundary conditions for nested high resolution simulations. Upper and lower bounds on forecast range are identified within which global ensemble forecasts provide skillful information for system-wide wind power applications. An upper bound on forecast range is associated with the limit of predictability, beyond which forecasts have no more skill than predictions based on climatological statistics. A lower bound is defined at the lead time beyond which the resolved uncertainty associated with estimating the future large-scale atmospheric state is larger than the unresolved uncertainty associated with estimating the system-wide wind power response to a given large-scale state. [Cannon, D., Brayshaw, D., Methven, J., & Drew, D. (2017). Determining the bounds of skilful forecast range for probabilistic prediction of system-wide wind power generation. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 26(3), 239-252.]

## Probabilistic Fire Propagation Model

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

A mathematical model that explains the probability of fire spreading after it is ignited

## Probabilistic Framework

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

Social-and-Behavioral-Sciences “In the theory of probabilistic measurement concepts of measurement are developed in a probabilistic framework to provide a theoretically sound treatment of variability of measurements. Concepts of probabilistic measurement evolved in the context of the behavioral and social sciences, for instance in psychophysics and utility theory.” (Heyer and Niederée 2001) [Heyer, D and Niederée, R. (2001). Measurement Theory: Probabilistic. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Smelser, N and Baltes, P.B., eds.). Elsevier. https://www.sciencedirect.com/referencework/9780080430768/international-encyclopedia-of-the-social-and-behavioral-sciences ]

## Propagation of Uncertainties

Created Aug 13, 2020 (00:00)

Synonym(s):
• Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainties; Endoxastic Uncertainty; Epistemic Uncertainties; Aleatory vs. Epistemic (Model-Based Uncertainties); Uncertainty Modeling

Propagation of Uncertainty is defined as carrying forward the effects of uncertainty in any of the initial inputs to a function or model's outputs. Propagation of uncertainty provides the final results with an associated level of confidence. Propagation of uncertainty also enables the improvement of the models and data collection efforts.

## Prototype

Created Jan 12, 2021 (14:51)

Engineering: “An early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process” [Adopted from Blackwell, A. H.; Manar, E., eds. (2015). "Prototype". UXL Encyclopedia of Science (3rd ed.).]

## Pseudo-Multi-Hazard Analysis

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Safety "Risk is defined as “the combination of the probability of an event and its negative consequences” The elements at risk primarily consist of individuals and communities, infrastructures, natural environment, and economic activities and services, which are under the threat of disaster in a given area. It can simply be expressed in a “pseudo-equation”: Risk (R) = Hazard (H) x Vulnerability (V)." (Aksha 2018; 4) [Aksha, S. K. (2018). Assessing vulnerability and multi-hazard risk in the Nepal Himalaya (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Tech).]