(R) 29 terms
PDF Excel JSON
A A B B C C D D E E F F G G H H I I J J K K L L M M N N O O P P Q Q R R S S T T U U V W X Y Z
Owned All
Term (Ascending) Term (Descending) Creation date (Ascending) Creation date (Descending) Creator (Ascending) Creator (Descending) Term Definition Abbreviations Synonyms Labels
 | 

Railroad Fragility

Created Jan 12, 2021 (14:51) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

(Noun) Railroad fragility describes the probability that a railroad system or structure will reach or exceed a certain damage state for a given hazard intensity. [Argyroudis, S., and Kaynia, A. M., Analytical seismic fragility functions for highway and railway embankments and cuts. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 44(11), 1863-1879, 2015]

Random Occurrences of Loads

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

"Load intensities at various occurrences," that are "independent and identically distributed random variables," meaning the loads occur randomly over time (El-Reedy 2012; 133) [El-Reedy, M. A. (2012). Reinforced concrete structural reliability. CRC Press.]

Range of Use Cases

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

Software "Use cases can be described either at an abstract level (known as a business use-case) or at an implementation-specific level (known as a system use case). Business Use Cases are written in a technology-agnostic manner, simply referring to the high-level business process being described (e.g. "book return") and the various external entities (also known as an actor) that take part in the process (e.g. "borrower", "librarian", etc.). The business use case will define the sequence of actions that the business needs to perform to give a meaningful, observable result to the external entity. System Use Cases are written at a lower level of detail than the business use case and refer to specific processes that will be carried out by different parts of the system. For example a system use case might be "return book when overdue" and would describe the interactions of the various actors (borrower, librarian) with the system in carrying out the end-to-end process." (Inflectra 2018; web) [Inflectra. (2018). Use Cases and Scenarios. Retrieved from https://www.inflectra.com/ideas/topic/use-cases.aspx]

Rapidity

Created Jan 12, 2021 (14:51)

Synonym(s):
  • Resilience

Sociology A component of "resilience;" "The capacity to restore functionality in a timely way, containing losses and avoiding disruptions." (Tierney and Bruneau 2007, 15) [Tierney, K., & Bruneau, M. (2007). Conceptualizing and measuring resilience: A key to disaster loss reduction. TR news, (250).]

Real-Time Learning

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

General Also known as “synchronous learning,” real time learning is: a “general term used to describe forms of education, instruction, and learning that occur at the same time, but not in the same place. The term is most commonly applied to various forms of televisual, digital, and online learning in which students learn from instructors, colleagues, or peers in real time, but not in person.” (Great Schools Partnership 2014; web) [Great Schools Partnership. 2014. The Glossary of Education Reform: Synchronous Learning. Retrieved from: https://www.edglossary.org/synchronous-learning/]

Recovery

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

Emergency-Management “Recovery involves actions, and the implementation of programs, needed to help individuals and communities return to normal. Recovery actions often extend long after the incident itself. Recovery programs include mitigation components designed to avoid damage from future incidents. Typical recovery actions may include: 1. Repair and replacement of disaster damaged public facilities (roads, bridges, municipal buildings, schools, hospitals, qualified non-profits); 2. Debris cleanup and removal; 3. Temporary housing and other assistance for disasters victims and their families; 4. Low-interest loans to help individuals and businesses with long-term rebuilding and mitigation measures; 5. Restoration of public services (electric power, water, sewer, telephone); 6. Crisis counseling and mental health; 7. Disaster unemployment; and 8. Planning and programs for long-term economic stabilization, community recovery and mitigation.” (DHS 2004;16) [U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). (2004). National Response Plan: February 25, 2004. Retrieved from: https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=450766 ]

Recovery Models

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00)

Models used to simulate recovery of a system from a disruption. Disruptions can be due to natural disasters (e.g., earthquake, hurricane, tornado, etc.), man-made disasters (e.g., terrorist attacks, global warming, etc.), or disease pandemic, among others. Recovery models are produced to model one or multiple aspects of recovery of the affected system in the aftermath. Some types of these models predict the recovery stage of the system in a specific time after the disaster occurred (e.g., revenue recovery of a business one year after a disaster). Another type of recovery model predicts the time needed for the system to recover back to a certain functionality level based on its initial condition after a disaster (e.g., functionality fragility models). Recovery models can be of various types and complexities, including simple fragility models, Bayesian linear regression models, and models developed using machine-learning methods. Recovery models typically are used along with other types of models (e.g., consequence models) in simulation frameworks to study the restoration response of a system and its cascading effect on the rest of the systems. In the context of community resilience, recovery models are used to simulate recovery of sectors forming a community, including lifelines, businesses, and households, and their interactions.

Redundancy

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (Elizabeth Bittel)

Resilience. The extent to which element and components of a system can be substituted for one another [Lin, P., & Wang, N. (2016). Building portfolio fragility functions to support scalable community resilience assessment. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, 1(3-4), 108-122.]

Refined Constituent Fragility

Created Aug 12, 2020 (00:00) by Unknown User (McAlister Kosar)

Fragility defined for the constituent components of a system. The failure of the system is then defined in terms of component failure events, and the corresponding probability is computed by use of the methods of system reliability.

Refined-Scale Traffic Flow (Multi Refined-Scale Traffic Flow)

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Helen Gardner)

(Noun) A multi-scale traffic flow model integrates different modeling paradigms in a unified framework, so that all traffic phenomena that are occurring at various scales (typically geographical resolutions) can be simulated with sufficient accuracy and consistency. [Adapted from Joueiai, M., Leclercq, L., Lint, H.V., and Hoogendoorn, S.P., Multiscale Traffic Flow Model Based on the Mesoscopic Lighthill–Whitham and Richards Models. Transportation Research Record 2491 (2015): 106 - 98]

Repair

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Dylan Sanderson

(Verb) Repair is the action taken to reconstruct or renew individual components or parts of an existing structural or infrastructural system for the purpose of maintenance or correction of deterioration, damage, or faulty construction. Depending on the degree of damage, repairs typically involve localized replacement of structural, mechanical, or envelope components or systems, or demolition and reconstruction. Repair does not generally consider other interdependent infrastructure system(s) required for full functionality. Recovery of functionality in buildings and infrastructure systems following a natural hazard event has two components - repair and restoration - which can be undertaken sequentially or concurrently. For example, in a water supply infrastructure system composed of buildings, pumping stations, and pipes, repair would be defined as the actions taken to remedy damage to each component (buildings, pipes, and pumping stations), but does not consider dependencies on electric power infrastructure or telecommunications infrastructure to ensure functionality. [Adapted from ACI 562-19. Code Requirements for Assessment, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Existing Concrete Structures (ACI 562-19) and Commentary]

Repair Prioritization

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Anonymous User)

(Noun) Repair prioritization is the process of deciding the optimal order (typically to mimize cost and time and maximze resilience) in which multiple, damaged infrastructure components should be repaired based on their relative importance quantified by a specific risk-informed metric.

Resilience

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Elizabeth Bittel)

“The ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse events” [National Academies. (2012). Disaster resilience: A national imperative – Summary. Committee on science, engineering and public policy. Author. Retrieved from www.nap.edu/ html/13457/13457_summary.pdf]

Resilience Assessment

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Elizabeth Bittel)

An assessment that “includes not only the analysis of potential disruptive events (risk analysis) but also post-event analysis (e.g., recovery) covering the whole life-cycle of a system” [Gasser, P., Lustenberger, P., Cinelli,M., Kim, W., Spada, M., Burgherr, P., Hirschberg, S., Stojadinovic, B., and Sun, T. (2019) A review on resilience assessment of energy systems, Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure.]

Resilience Forecasting

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Involves “projecting how resilience will evolve in future periods, given current and recently observed values” [Cissé, J., and Barrett, C. (2018). Estimating Development Resilience: A Conditional Moments-Based Approach. Journal of Development Economics, 135, (272–284).]

Restoration

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Dylan Sanderson

(Noun) Restoration is the action taken to remedy physical damage of individual building(s) and infrastructure system(s) to pre-event conditions or better considering the interdependence between infrastructure systems. Repair, restoration, and recovery are related yet distinct terms. For example, in a water supply infrastructure system composed of pumping stations and pipes, the pumping station relies on an electric power supply to function. Pipe functionality depends on the pumping station, and the pumping station depends on the electric power supply. Here, restoration considers interdependence between the water and electric power infrastructures.

Restoration Analyses

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

(Noun) Restoration analyses is the detailed examination of the restoration process using quantitative models. Restoration of lifeline systems can be modeled using four primary approaches: (1) statistical curve fitting, (2) deterministic resource constraint, (3) Markov processes, and (4) network. [Cagnan, Z., and Davidson, R., Post-earthquake restoration modeling of electric power systems. In Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp. 1-6. 2004.]

Restoration Functions

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Civil Engineering. In the context of resilience assessment of infrastructure, restoration functions indicate performance or capacity of a element or system for a given time after a disruptive event. (Misra et al. 2020, Decision tree based bridge restoration models for extreme event performance assessment of regional road networks, Structure and Infrastructure Engineering.)

Restoration Sequencing

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Civil Engineering. In the context of resilience assessment of infrastructure, restoration sequencing takes places after a disruptive event where elements within a system are intervened, in series or parallel, in order to recover their capacities and meet as much demand as possible. (Misra et al. 2020, Decision tree based bridge restoration models for extreme event performance assessment of regional road networks, Structure and Infrastructure Engineering.)

Retrofit

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Synonym(s):
  • Pre-Event Seismic Retrofit; Prospective Retrofit

Civil Engineering “Improving the seismic performance of structural or nonstructural components of a building subject to natural hazards. The improvement can be achieved by modifications to existing components, or installation of new components, that correct deficiencies identified in a structural evaluation as part of a scheme to rehabilitate a structure to achieve a selected performance objective.” [Adopted from ASCE 41-2017]

Risk Assessment

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Emergency-Management "A systematic characterization of the probability of an adverse event and the nature and severity of that event (Presidential/Congressional Commision on Risk Assessment and Risk Management 1997). Risk assessments are most often used to determine the human health or ecological impacts of specific chemical substances, microorganisms, radiation, or natural hazards... In the natural-hazards field, risk assessment has a broader meaning, and involves a systematic process of defining the probability of an adverse event (e.g., flood) and what is the consequences of that." (Hill and Cutter 2001; 15-16) [Hill, Arleen A. & Cutter, Susan L. (2001). Methods for Determining Disaster Proneness. Chapter2, in American Hazardscapes: The Regionalization of Hazards and Disasters, Susan L. Cutter (ed.) Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.]

Risk Communication Tools

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Medicine The use of different methods to display the risk of a certain medical diagnosis. (Edwards et al. 1999) [Edwards, A., Elwyn, G., & Gwyn, R. (1999). General practice registrar responses to the use of different risk communication tools in simulated consultations: a focus group study. Bmj, 319(7212), 749-752.]

Risk-Informed Decisions

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Synonym(s):
  • Risk Assessment

Policy Conclusions made for risk assessments such as health and environmental protection. (Amendola 2002) [Amendola, A. (2002). Recent paradigms for risk informed decision making. Safety Science, 40(1-4), 17-30.]

Risk Modeling for Transportation Infrastructure

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Civil-Engineering. Risk Modeling is the task concerned with quantifying failure probability of transportation elements and networks due to man made or natural actions, usually involving development of mathematical functions to estimate expected values of risk indicators . (Seyedshohadaie et al. 2010) [Seyedshohadaie, S. R., Damnjanovic, I., & Butenko, S. (2010). Risk-based maintenance and rehabilitation decisions for transportation infrastructure networks. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 44(4), 236-248.]

riverine and coastal flooding

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Jong Lee

Synonym(s):
  • Civil Engineering

Flooding or inundation in a riverine or coastal area. Example causes include, but are not limited to, excessive rainfall, hurricane storm surge, or heavy snow melt

Riverine Flooding Hazard Prediction

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Estimation of the future risks of a river flooding will have on local infrastructure and populations. (Burges 1998) [Burges, S. J. (1998). Streamflow prediction: capabilities, opportunities, and challenges. Hydrologic Sciences: Taking Stock and Looking Ahead, 101-134.]

Road Network Risk Mitigation

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

Synonym(s):
  • Long-Term Road Network Recovery Scheduling

Civil-Engineering Improvement of the road infrastructure system by assessing performance metrics such as "network topology, redundancy level, traffic patterns, structural reliability of network components (i.e. roads and bridge) and functionality of the network druring community's post-disaster recovery" (Zhang & Wang, 2015; abstract) [Zhang, W., & Wang, N. (2016). Resilience-based risk mitigation for road networks. Structural Safety, 62, 57-65.]

Robustness

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Elizabeth Bittel)

Emergency-Management The ability to withstand a range of extreme events and deliver a certain level of service even after the occurrence of any of those events. (Lin and Wang 2016) [Lin, P., & Wang, N. (2016). Building portfolio fragility functions to support scalable community resilience assessment. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, 1(3-4), 108-122.] Emergency-Management One component of the R4 framework for resilience: "the ability of systems, system elements, and other units of analysis to withstand disaster forces without significant degradation or loss of performance" (Tierney and Bruneau 2007) [Tierney, K., & Bruneau, M. (2007). Conceptualizing and measuring resilience: A key to disaster loss reduction. TR news, (250).]

Rupture Zone Geometry

Created Dec 22, 2021 (15:02) by Unknown User (Sydney Eiss)

The spatial orientation of the breakage of ground along the surface trace of a fault caused by the intersection of the fault surface area ruptured in an earthquake with the Earth's surface.